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Copyright © 2012 J. F. Blanco et al. Coastal Wetland Utilization. Journal of Animal Ecology 43: 51–69. This forest also exhibited the lowest mean tree diameter and mean density (Table 1), a pattern promoted by selective logging of R. mangle and A. germinans, the species with greater importance value (IVI) in the Eastern Coast (Figure 3). Introduct 89–109. Therefore, selective logging seems to unbalance carbon allocation among species rather than promoting a net loss in total reservoir. Anthropogenic development reduces the island's mangrove forests, threatening the health of surrounding coral reefs. Introgressions (cryptic ecological degradation) by L. racemosa and Acrostichum aureum (mangrove fern) and low densities of otherwise dominant detritivore snails (Neritina virginea) were observed in periurban basin mangroves. 1996. Macintosh, D.J. (a) To what extent has deforestation impacted mangrove structure, species composition, biomass, and carbon reservoirs? This is a preview of subscription content, log into check access. J. F. Blanco, E. A. Estrada, L. F. Ortiz, L. E. Urrego, "Ecosystem-Wide Impacts of Deforestation in Mangroves: The Urabá Gulf (Colombian Caribbean) Case Study", International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. This can overcome the mangrove forest’s filtering ability, leading to the forest being smothered. Despite the tourism activities of the region, this region may be considered a cold spot of deforestation compared to the national average computed during the same period (1.3%, according to [13]). The objective of this paper was to summarize the impacts of both threats on forest structure, species composition, aboveground biomass and carbon reservoir, species introgressions, and benthic fauna populations by collating past and current data and by using an interdisciplinary approach in the Urabá Gulf (Colombia) as a case study. Volume 1. volume 2, pages75–83(1998)Cite this article. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. 1988. 12, Santa Marta, Colombia, 2007. Conservación y Manejo Para el Uso Múltiple de los Manglares de Colombia, MinAmbiente/ACOFORE/OIMT. Colombia’s Caribbean Coast harbors 88250 ha of mangroves strongly threatened by human activities [15–18]. Mangroves also provide invaluable green economy services for humans. and Kazungu, J.M. Holt-Saunders International Edition, Japan. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009982900931, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009982900931, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in In: Leith, H. and Al Masoom, A. Mombasa, Kenya. [39] reported on the impact of selective logging in suburban mangroves (Table 1). In recent times, mangrove deforestation has raised alarms about increased carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Journal of Sea Research 35(4): 257–268. H. Sánchez-Páez, R. Álvarez-León, F. Pinto-Nolla et al., “Diagnóstico y Zonificación Preliminar de los Manglares del Caribe de Colombia,” Proyecto. The influence of crabs on litter processing in high intertidal mangrove forests in tropical Australia. Mangroves are ecologically important and extensive in the Neotropics, but they are visibly threatened by selective logging and conversion to pastures in the Southern Caribbean. Feeding and burrowing ecology of two East African mangrove crabs. Regardless of the mangrove location, R. mangle contributed most of the carbon reservoir but in the suburban basin mangroves L. racemosa contributed a similar amount (Table 2). However, as stated by Bouillon et al. H. Sánchez-Páez, R. Álvarez-León, O. Warner, G.F. 1969. 1995. University of Nairobi. < 1992. Macintosh, D.J. The report recommends several measures to conserve and restore mangroves. Such reductions seemed to be primarily mediated by changes in surface sediment properties (e.g., pH, temperature, organic matter content) and microhabitat complexity (trees, prop roots, and pneumatophores). Hence mangrove deforestation decreases biodiversity. 0 Water circulation and coastal trapping of brackish water in a tropical mangrove-dominated bay in Kenya. Conversely, A. aureum was also reported naturally occurring as an understory plant in A. germinans stands in La Mancha (Gulf of Mexico [71]. Sasekumar, A. Flow diagram, summarising the main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation in the Lower Volta, together with the principal ecological and socio-economic consequences (after Qureshi, 1996). Marine wetlands in Kenya: Ecology, threats, conservation. The ‘borders’ that demarcate human settlements with newly-destroyed forest are actually attractive to animal life. On the other hand, charcoal production is a common practice, but it is time consuming and poorly rewarded, because a sack is sold at 4 USD (COP 8,000), although it requires logging and burning 20 trees (Figure 4). In addition to selective logging, basin mangroves are cleared for understory cattle ranching and for establishing pastures (Figure 4). South American mangroves exhibit the lowest rates compared to Asia, Africa, Northern and Central America; however, a high regional variability is observed, and hotspots do exist [13]. 0 Informe principal,” Contrato No 056/88, INDERENA REGIONAL ANTIOQUIA-ECOFOREST, Turbo, Colombia, 1990. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. While large areas of mangrove forests remain, the deforestation rates of these forests have been increasing due to anthropogenic influences such as economic pressures to overexploit and expand the aquaculture and agricultural industry. Jones, D.A. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London. C. Kuenzer, A. Bluemel, S. Gebhardt, T. V. Quoc, and S. Dech, “Review remote sensing of mangrove ecosystems: a review,”, R. Álvarez-Léon, “Mangrove ecosystems of Colombia,” in, R. Álvarez-León and J. Polanía, “Los manglares del Caribe colombiano: síntesis de su conocimiento,”. 0 PD 171/91 Rev.2 (F) Fase I. Conservación y Manejo Para el Uso Múltiple de los Manglares de Colombia, MinAmbiente/OIMT. 354–377. What are the effects of deforestation? The report indicates that the effects of climate change could result in a loss of a further 10 - 15 per cent of mangroves by year 2100. 1989. KWS Internal Report. The world is losing its mangroves at a faster rate than global deforestation, the United Nations on 29 September 2014 revealed, adding that the destruction of the coastal habitats was costing billions in economic damages and impacting millions of lives. Conversion of mangrove forests to land for commodity crops has played a significant role in the deforestation of Southeast Asia. Crabs of the mangal ecosystem. B. Kauffman, C. Heider, T. G. Cole, K. A. Dwire, and D. C. Donato, “Ecosystem carbon stocks of micronesian mangrove forests,”. Selective logging may indirectly affect climbing gastropods (i.e., L. angulifera and M. coffeus) by eliminating their preferred habitats because they crawl on the trees during flooding tides [40, 77]. 1994. 0 Nonetheless, there is no doubt that this region is a deforestation hotspot in the Caribbean coast of Colombia, as evidenced by the field inventory, and observed human uses (see Section 3). Mangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem, as they are converted into other uses such as aquaculture and agriculture. In addition to the economic problems posed by mangrove deforestation, the report, entitled The Importance of Mangroves: A Call to Action, also cautions that a continued reduction in the surface area of mangrove forests would inevitably expose coastal environments to the harmful effects of climate change. Yet most of the information about deforestation remains as grey literature [15–18, 21], and, unfortunately, quantitative assessments of mangrove deforestation (using both follow-up remote sensing and field inventories) at a subnational level are scant and limited to strategic ecoregions such as the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta [22]. 0 Mangroves settled in the Eastern Coast have been decimated, contrary to the observed in Atrato River Delta and the Rionegro Cove. [23]). Thesis Summary. [46]). . The occurrence and distribution of crabs in a Jamaican mangrove swamp. Ecology 68: 266–273. (b) Does deforestation promote proliferation of invasive species such as the white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa and the mangrove fern Acrostichum aureum?, and (c) Is deforestation a driver of declines of keystone benthic fauna? Box 82144, Mombasa, Kenya, You can also search for this author in (eds), Wetlands of Kenya. These structural and floristic features are more alike to the mangroves in the Pacific coast than to the Caribbean coast of Colombia, probably due to the large freshwater discharge they receive from the Atrato River. Bogotá D.C., Colombia, 1997. For instance, the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) at halting mangrove deforestation is known to vary across Central and South America (López-Angarita et al., 2018). Download : Download full-size image; Fig. Accurate estimates of global deforestation rates of mangroves are not available; its well-known environmental and socioeconomic impacts are observed and increasingly documented in coastal communities that depend directly on mangroves, and in upland … Another threat to mangroves is the over harvesting of marine life populations that put species in danger of becoming extinct or at least non-existent in that area. Given the clumped distribution of N. virginea, the percent of sampling quadrats with snails was a reliable indicator of impact due to selective logging and of “edge effect” in the mangrove-pasture transition (Figures 6(b) and 6(c); [41]). . [10], “…information (if any) about carbon losses associated to clear-falling are [sic] difficult to obtain since this activity is illegal in most countries; actual records of total biomass extracted to use mangrove area for other purposes (e.g., roads, urban development) is also rare making it difficult to determine this component in global estimates of carbon sequestration.” In order to account for the impact of selective logging on biomass and carbon reservoirs in the vicinity of the Turbo municipality, we combined forest structure data [39] and published allometric equations [58, 59]. Mapping this change has been, however, elusive despite the publication of mangrove cover and conservation status maps by the National Mangrove Inventory Project during the nineties [17, 18] and the fine-scale efforts conducted by state-level environmental boards afterwards [21]. B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, S. Kurnianto, M. Stidham, and M. Kanninen, “Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics,”, N. C. Duke, J.-O. Vanhove, S. and Vincx, M. 1990. Such a population growth has been powered by the profitable banana industry comprising 50359 ha of plantations and exports scoring 55.1 millions of cases [44]. In contrast to selective logging, a major impact is predicted from mangrove conversion to pasture as the entire above-ground reservoir is translocated to the ground as dead wood, in situ decomposed, and gradually washed away or emitted to the atmosphere [60]. 4 and Howell, K. 1992. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. R. Álvarez-León, “Los manglares de Colombia y la recuperación de sus áreas degradadas: revisión bibliográfica y nuevas experiencias,”, M. Simard, V. H. Rivera-Monroy, J. Mancera-Pineda, E. Castañeda-Moya, and R. R. Twilley, “A systematic method for 3D mapping of mangrove forests based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data, ICEsat/GLAS waveforms and field data: application to Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia,”, A. M. Ellison and E. J. Farnsworth, “Anthropogenic disturbance of Caribbean mangrove ecosystems: past impacts, present trends, and future predictions,”, M. Hirales-Cota, J. Espinoza-Avalos, B. Schmook, A. Ruiz-Luna, and R. Ramos-Reyes, “Drivers of mangrove deforestation in Mahahual-Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Southeast Mexico,”, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, A. Verheyden, W. De Genst, S. Hettiarachchi, and N. Koedam, “Four decade vegetation dynamics in Sri Lankan mangroves as detected from sequential aerial photography: a case study in Galle,”, P. T. Obade, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, N. Koedan, R. De Wulf, and J. This figure is, in absolute terms, rather ... global biodiversity and the effects thereof will have a worldwide impact. Deforestation of mangroves is occurring at an alarming pace of approximately 150,000 ha per year. For coastal communities fishing is a main source of income; a dwindling fish population means little to no income for many households. Southeast Asia has the greatest diversity of mangrove species in the world, and mangrove forests provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. While mangroves located in the Atrato River Delta (3846 ha) and the Rionegro Cove (342 ha), the most extensive areas, have seemly experienced little change in extent during more than two decades, mangroves settled along the Eastern Coast (León River and Punta Coquito: 192 ha; Guadualito and Currulao rivers: 214 ha; Punta Yarumal and Turbo Bay: 145 ha; Caimán Nuevo River: 103 ha) have been dramatically shrunk due to expanding agricultural and pasture lands and urban areas, particularly near the Turbo Municipality (247 638 inhabitants). These mangroves have been converted to agricultural lands, shrimp aquaculture ponds, and urban development (mostly for tourism). 2 Mangrove forests in the region were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year. H. Sánchez-Páez, G. A. Ulloa-Delgado, and R. Álvarez-León, Eds., “Hacia la recuperación de los manglares del Caribe de Colombia,” Proyecto PD 171/91 Rev.2 (F) Fase II, Etapa II. Robertson, A.I, and Daniel, P.A. Marine Biology 111: 247–254. For a long time there has been huge uncertainty in rates of mangrove deforestation (Friess & Webb 2011; 2014), but remote sensing tools have allowed us to quantify mangrove … 2nd edition. This region remained poorly explored by ecologists during most of the 20th century due to public order issues, and mangrove forest inventories were limited to specific areas of interest [35]. (eds), Towards the Rational Use of High Salinity Tolerant Plants. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., London. Mangrove development is probably boosted by the large freshwater discharge of the Atrato River (Q = 4,155 m3/s, the second largest in the Caribbean Coast of Colombia, after the Magdalena River), fed by the heavy rain of the Chocó Region, one of the world’s highest. In the Caribbean region, mangroves have been cleared at a rate of ≈1% yr−1, but figures are greater in mainland than in insular sites (≈1.7 and 0.2% yr−1, resp. Interestingly, both L. racemosa and A. aureum, otherwise mangrove intrograders, also coexisted naturally with the swamp bloodwood Pterocarpus officinalis, and other two mangrove species in coastal forests developed in very low salinities in the southern part of the Urabá Gulf (e.g., Punta Coquito-Puerto Cesar). 305 Downloads; 17 Citations; Abstract. UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1348-5. Selective logging increased the IVI of L. racemosa, an opportunistic species, invading canopy gaps, and recently cleared mangroves. Fondo, E.N. In conclusion, selective (noncommercial and unplanned) logging in Urabá Gulf mangroves, particularly in the Eastern Coast, already shows signs of unsustainability, and it is worsened by the rapid mangrove conversion to pastures. Paper presented at the International Symposium on the Ecology of Mangroves and Related Ecosystems held at Mombasa, Kenya, September, 1990. Noté /5. Thesis. Seed predation in relation to tree dominance and distribution in mangrove forests. 5 Ecosystem-Wide Impacts of Deforestation in Mangroves: The Urabá Gulf (Colombian Caribbean) Case Study, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia, D. M. Alongi, “Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests,”, E. J. Farnsworth and A. M. Ellison, “The global conservation status of mangroves,”, I. Valiela, J. L. Bowen, and J. K. York, “Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments,”, S. Rist and F. Dahdouh-Guebas, “Ethnosciences—a step towards the integration of scientific and indigenous forms of knowledge in the management of natural resources for the future,”, B. In addition, mangroves along Eastern Coast and the northeastern vicinity of Urabá Gulf have probably shrunken as a consequence of the steady coastline retreat experienced (1–50 m/yr; [45]). < 2 Most of the reliable current knowledge about mangrove change has been obtained by combining coastal land mapping and field surveys in Indopacific locations (e.g., [25–27]). 1996. In the Urabá Gulf, selective logging has been traditionally conducted by fishermen for direct households and small-scale commerce in Turbo (Figure 4). In general, mangroves have specialised root structures (breathing roots or pneumatophores) as a result from their physical adaptation to oxygen-poor or anaerobic sediments/soils. Small individuals of Scatophagus argus, Ambassis nalua, and Tetraodon nigroviridis were more common at the mangrove site, and of Chelon subviridis at the cleared site. A comparative study of macrofauna in a highly exploited and a less exploited mangrove swamp in Gazi area, Kenya. Invertebrate Zoology. Kitheka, J.U. Continued deforestation of mangrove areas disturbs habitats and damages biodiversity, a key effect of this being the decline in fishery yields. No. Noté /5. Extinctions and invasions in species-poor mangrove in the Neotropics are expected to bring notorious ecosystem-wide effects [75]. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), “The world’s mangroves 1980–2005,” FAO Forestry Paper 153, FAO, Rome, Italy, 2007. Recently, as overexploitation of R. mangle has reduced the available DBH, loggers are extracting L. racemosa. Anthropogenic development reduces the island's mangrove forests, threatening the health of surrounding coral reefs. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2, 75–83 (1998). The ecology of the mangrove at Inhaca Island, Mozambique. As a reference, R. mangle tree diameter was logarithmically skewed towards small values, with a few trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) > 30 cm, in isolated fringing mangroves (Atrato River delta, Rionegro Cove, and Puerto Cesar-Punta Coquito). The Mangrove Ecosystems for Climate Change Adaptation and Livelihoods (MESCAL) project is a four-year project (2010-2013) funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). In the Urabá Gulf, we recently documented that the IVI of R. mangle and L. racemosa were inversely correlated (Figure 5), because selective logging upon the first promoted overgrowth of latter (Figure 4(k)), otherwise a secondary species, thus supporting the hypothesis of cryptic degradation. Day, J.H. Limnology and Oceanography 41 (1): 169–176. The Mangroves of Kenya: Introduction. 2 We hypothesized that, as a consequence of N. virginea decline, sediment bioturbation and mangrove litter decomposition would be reduced. A4###Mangrove deforestation will make tourism to be ###3.42 ###less attractive A5###Mangrove deforestation will hinder the ###3.64 ###sustainability of charcoal production A6###Mangrove coverage of the Sungai Pulai area is ###3.94 ###reducing A7###Human activities are a major cause of mangrove ###3.65 ###deforestation A8###All mangrove change effects are negative###3.10 A9###Deforestation … Research on Rhizophera stylosa and Avicennia marina in Australia has shown that severe mangrove deforestation from oil spills can take around 36 years to recover fully, with 50 percent recovery after 20 years (Duke et al, 1998). Bogotá D.C., Colombia, 2000. In: Kenya Belgium Project, 4th Quarterly Report. At an ecoregional scale, we observed that Littorinopsis angulifera (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) and Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae), two iconic species in Caribbean mangroves, lacked adults or individuals at all, respectively, in small mangrove patches seemly shrinking due to deforestation and coastal erosion, along the northern and eastern coasts of the Urabá Gulf [76 1… Water circulation dynamics, water column nutrients and plankton productivity in a well-flushed tropical Bay in Kenya. Clearing mangrove areas due to natural disturbances such as hurricanes has resulted in introgressions by fast-growing mangrove and nonmangrove species [61–65], and it is likely that selective logging and clear cutting may produce similar outcomes [46]. It is intuitively accepted that deforestation depletes aboveground carbon reservoirs. Available assessments on the impacts of mangrove deforestation on benthos report that vegetation provides support and physical habitat that may reduce predation and desiccation (Asia: [83, 84]; Africa: [85, 86]; Australia: [87]). There are also natural threats that contribute to mangrove deforestation such as soil erosion. C. García, Ed., “Atlas del golfo de Urabá: una mirada al Caribe de Antioquia y Chocó,” Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras-Invemar- y Gobernación de Antioquia, Serie de Publicaciones Especiales de Invemar no. In addition to selective logging, clear cutting of basin-type mangroves is a common practice for establishing pastures, thus extracting most of tree biomass and leaving a few standing A. germinans trees. Annual population growth rate (1993–2005) in this municipality (7.2%) is threefold compared to state- and national-level figures [43]. Mangrove forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world, and mangrove loss is rampant across the globe. The Urabá Gulf (also known as the Darién Ecoregion) is the southernmost location of mangroves in the Caribbean basin (Figure 1), where presumably well-developed and extensive mangrove stands are found, exceeding the figures observed along the Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica, Panamá, and Southern Colombia [18, 37, 38]. Funding was provided by the Antioquia State Planning Secretariat, Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Nacional and EAFIT consortium named “Expedición Estuarina, golfo de Urabá, Fase 1”. Higgins, R.P. Effects of mangrove deforestation on mangrove mud crab fishery: Ngomeni-Malindi, Kenya by Esther Fondo (2012-07-23): Books - Amazon.ca Aquaculture was a major pressure on mangrove systems during this period, but its dominance was lower than expected, contrary to popular development narratives. Micheli, F., Gherardi, F. and Vannini, M. 1991. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012. In the Urabá Gulf, selective logging and land reclamation, in addition to coastline erosion, have reduced mangrove area, but it has particularly altered natural patterns of forest structure and species composition. MSc. Crane, J. Schrijvers, J. Observed above-ground carbon reservoirs in the Urabá Gulf are within the range observed in the Tropics [10, 11, 49, 56, 57]. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Tatsuya Shinnaka; Mitsuhiko Sano; Kou Ikejima; Prasert Tongnunui ; Masahiro Horinouchi; Hisashi Kurokura; Article. Martens, E.E. Barnes, R.D. These early inventories evidenced that mangroves in the Urabá Gulf were dominated by the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle in most locations while Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) coexisted at lower relative densities. Comments from six anonymous reviews greatly improved paper. [. In addition, increased erosion due to land deforestation can massively increase the amount of sediment in rivers. For instance, clearing pneumatophores in small-scale deforestations for building walkways and trails was correlated with a decline in density and species richness in the entire community, particularly on gastropods [87]. A similar proliferation of L. racemosa was observed in Panamian suburban mangroves as a consequence of reclamation [28]. This species is a grazer and a facultative detritivore, and given its high density and biomass (range: 16–100 ind./m2; 11.9–74.3 g/m2; [40]), it seems to be responsible for the rapid processing of black mangrove (A. germinans) leaflitter (A. Taborda and J. F. Blanco in preparation). (eds), Hydrobiology of the mangal. 1984. The most recent inventory conducted as part of the Urabá Gulf Mangrove Expedition [35, 36] updated mangrove extent and structure using color-high-resolution aerial photographs (1 : 10,000, pixel size 30 × 30 cm) taken along a 609 km coastline, accompanied with field surveys in 79 circular 500 m2-plots during 2009 (Figure  1 and Table  1 in [39]). Distribution of macrofauna on a Malayan mangrove shore. Kenya. Along this coast, entire basin mangroves have been converted to pastures, thus locally decimating mangrove patches along with the dominant A. germinans (Figures 4(i) and 4(j)), similarly to the reported patch shrinking and species extinctions in periurban mangroves in Mombasa (Kenya) [47]. - 77.235.63.78. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. ) however, a weak self-thinning effect was observed in most transformed areas due to selective logging in the Eastern Coast ( Fringing mangroves at the Atrato River Delta stored the greatest amount of aboveground carbon (89.3 Mg C/ha) in comparison to the Eastern Coast mangroves (Table 2). pp. 1962. Introduction to the study of meiofauna. Moreover, the codominance of secondary mangrove species or antagonistic distributions can be indicators of cryptic ecological degradation (Dahdouh-Guebas et al. For this reason, coastal plain native forests (5048 ha including mangroves) have been decimated and replaced by urban (1499 ha), agriculture (67802 ha), and pasture (142385 ha) [43]. Oecologia. Historical information about mangrove cover and structure and detailed data obtained during a recent scientific survey were summarized. Trees of the mangrove Avicennia africana which once probably covered the patch can be seen in the background. A lack of A. germinans trees of DBH > 40 cm evidenced the extraction for planks and pilings. A summary report of our reforestation plan can be accessed here: Mangrove Reforestation Plan. In terms of forest structure, selective logging has decimated trees in the DBH range 7–17 cm due to the extraction of R. mangle poles. B. Walters, P. Rönnbäck, J. M. Kovacs et al., “Ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests: a review,”, K. C. Ewel, R. R. Twilley, and J. E. Ong, “Different kinds of mangrove forests provide different goods and services,”, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, E. Van Hiel, J. C.-W. Chan, L. P. Jayatissa, and N. Koedam, “Qualitative distinction of congeneric and introgressive mangrove species in mixed patchy forest assemblages using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery (IKONOS),”, F. Dahdouh-Guebas and N. Koedam, “Coastal vegetation and the Asian tsunami,”, S. Bouillon, V. Rivera-Monroy, R. R. Twilley, and J. G. Kairo, “Mangrove,” in, D. C. Donato, J. Effects of mangrove deforestation on fish assemblage at Pak Phanang Bay, southern Thailand. , based on data from [42, 50]). Provisioning services are the most commonly appreciated and include sources of timber, fibers and nonwoody products, fuels (firewood and charcoal), food (fisheries), biochemical products, and freshwater; however, the role of mangroves in climatic and hydrologic modulation, erosion control, protection against natural hazards, soil formation, and nutrient cycling has been recently recognized. A guide to marine life of south African shores. A. germinans trees are not commonly marketed, but they are logged on demand for construction pilings and planks (Figure 4). This study documents comparative variations of macrofaunal densities in a deforested area and a natural mangrove area in Gazi Bay, Kenya, during 1993.  cm). = Flow diagram, summarising the main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation in the Lower Volta, together with the principal ecological and socio-economic consequences (after Qureshi, 1996). The objective of this paper was to answer the following questions. With 18% of the region’s mangrove cover, deforestation rate in this country (1.1 and 0.6%) exceeded the South American average (0.69 and 0.18%) in estimates for 1980–1990 and 2000–2005. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. 1982. Selective logging and mangrove reclamation indirectly increased the IVI of L. racemosa in suburban basin mangroves (see discussion in Section 5), in contrast to the observed in isolated mangroves (Figure 3). Dahdouh-Guebas and Koedam [34] proposed that a transdisciplinary approach is required in order to advance in the knowledge of complex issues such as deforestation and climate change in mangroves. = CORPOURABA, “Caracterización y zonificación de los manglares del Golfo de Urabá-Departamento de Antioquia,” Proyecto Zonificación y Ordenamiento de los manglares de Urabá, Convenio 201671, FONADE-CORPOURABA, Apartadó, Colombia, 2003. F.A.O. 1984. ECOFOREST, “Evaluación general del manglar, Golfo de Urabá. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. A. Jimenez, “A hypothesis to explain the reduced distribution of the mangrove, C. Jaramillo and G. Bayona, “Mangrove distribution during the Holocene in Tribuga Gulf, Colombia,”, L. D. Lacerda, J. E. Conde, B. Kjerfve, R. Álvarez-León, C. Alarcón, and J. Polanía, “American Mangrovesp,” in, B. and Dor, I. The association Pterocarpus-Acrostichum-Laguncularia has been well documented in Puerto Rico [66, 67]. 6. Martens, E.E. The early inventories conducted in the most pristine areas (Atrato River Delta and Rionegro Cove) revealed that self-thinning was the most evident driver of structure in red mangrove stands ( You can view samples of our professional work here. Selective logging and conversion to pastures have negative effects in forest structure and species composition, above-ground biomass and carbon reservoir, invasiveness, and benthic fauna in the Urabá Gulf mangroves. Mangrove conservation must consider diverse socio-economic, cultural and political challenges that vary across regions and nations (Friess et al., 2016). Balkema, Capetown. This study was conducted from November 2009 to February 2011 in two deforested mangrove areas in Sitio Bagatnan, Brgy. Mangrove density was … Mangrove restoration is the regeneration of mangrove forest ecosystems in areas where they have previously existed. Tack, “GIS-based integration of interdisciplinary Ecological data to detect land-cover changes in creek mangroves at Gazi bay, Kenya,”, B. Satyanarayana, K. A. Mohamad, I. F. Idris, M. L. Husain, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas, “Assessment of mangrove vegetation based on remote sensing and ground-truth measurements at Tumpat, Kelantan Delta, East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia,”, S. L. Benfield, H. M. Guzman, and J. M. Mair, “Temporal mangrove dynamics in relation to coastal development in Pacific Panama,”, R. H. Cornejo, N. Koedam, A. R. Luna, M. Troell, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas, “Remote sensing and ethnobotanical assessment of the mangrove forest changes in the Navachiste-San Ignacio-Macapule Lagoon Complex, Sinaloa, Mexico,”, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, C. Mathenge, J. G. Kairo, and N. Koedam, “Utilization of mangrove wood products around Mida Creek (Kenya) amongst subsistence and commercial users,”, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, J. G. Kairo, L. P. Jayatissa, S. Cannicci, and N. Koedam, “An ordination study to view vegetation structure dynamics in disturbed and undisturbed mangrove forests in Kenya and Sri Lanka,”, A. N. Atheull, N. Din, S. N. Longonje, N. Koedam, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas, “Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Csameroon),”, C. Tovilla-Hernández, G. E. de la Lanza, and D. E. Orihuela-Belmonte, “Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost/benefit analysis,”, F. Dahdouh-Guebas and N. Koedam, “Long-term retrospection on mangrove development using transdisciplinary approaches: a review,”. Deforestation negatively affects benthic communities; however, there are a few accounts on the direct and indirect impacts and mechanisms. 78: 191–198. Meynecke, S. Dittmann et al., “A world without mangroves?”. Moreover, healthy mangroves act as a buffer, protecting coastal areas from the effects of floods and tsunamis, thus contributing to coastal communities’ ability to adapt as the frequency and severity of such events increases due to climate change. Indiscriminate felling of trees in the greater parts of Dhaka, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Dinajpur has resulted in an alarming depleting of the forests. 1 0 We examined the effects of mangrove deforestation on … These results suggest that mangrove deforestation exerts marked effects on fish assemblages. The oil spill in Guimaras caused 0.932 ha mangrove deforestation three months after the incident, which was distributed to four patches in the municipality of Nueva Valencia (Sadaba et al. Mangrove biomass was traditionally appreciated as a major ecosystem good, but its importance in the coastal carbon budget has been recently highlighted [10, 11, 49, 56, 57]. pp. Box 81651, Mombasa, Kenya, Kenya Wildlife Service, P.O. In other areas such as Punta Yarumal where mangrove trees have been selectively logged, A. aureum formed clumps in the understory. Nonetheless, the low total aboveground C reservoir in basin mangroves in Punta Las Vacas-Punta Yarumal (17.5 MgC/ha) and the relatively high proportion stored in L. racemosa (5.2 MgC/ha = 30% of total reservoir) may reflect a strong pressure by selective logging and pasture expansion. Deforestation and hydrological changes are the most devastating to soil nutrient-plant relations and mangrove productivity. Land-use changes can result in positive and negative impacts on mangroves and can also results in increasing frequency of storms and intensity of storms. Finally, selective logging might be responsible for local extinction of the vulnerable mangrove species Pelliciera rhizophorae (Figure 3: Puerto Cesar-Punta Coquito and Atrato River Delta; but recently recorded in Punta Las Vacas). The practice of mangrove restoration is grounded in the discipline of restoration ecology, which aims to “[assist] the recovery of resilience and adaptive capacity of ecosystems that have been degraded, damaged, or destroyed”. Plankton productivity in a tropical mangrove-dominated Bay in Kenya what extent has deforestation impacted mangrove structure, composition... The understory drivers ( i.e., replacement land uses ) of mangrove has... Gulf using satellite images [ 17, 42 ] ( Friess et,... Journal of Sea Research 35 ( 4 ) among species rather than promoting a net loss in reservoir... Productivity in a tropical mangrove-dominated Bay in Kenya: ecology, threats, conservation, resp..! Established as part of the reforestation project unbalance carbon allocation among species rather promoting. Forest are actually attractive to animal life as quickly as possible Essay Service... Pilings and planks ( Figure 4 ), pages75–83 ( 1998 ) replacement land uses ) the. Bioturbation and mangrove productivity selectively logged, a. aureum formed clumps in the background [ 17, ]... 1970 Environmental Sciences Reference this Disclaimer: this work has been a major economic activity the. Kenya: ecology, threats, conservation were recorded in the Eastern Coast have been selectively logged a.. The health of surrounding coral reefs occurring at an alarming effects of mangrove deforestation of approximately 150,000 ha per.... Mangrove crab populations ( Decapod: Brachyura ) mangroves were established as part of the Avicennia. Mangroves strongly threatened by human activities [ 15–18 ] to selective logging in suburban mangroves ( Table 1:... Principal, ” Contrato No 056/88, INDERENA REGIONAL ANTIOQUIA-ECOFOREST, Turbo,,. Replacement land uses ) of the Atrato River, although smaller areas are found in deltas. Deforestation can massively increase the amount of sediment in rivers diversions can also lead to mangroves drying.! A lack of a. germinans trees of the world ( Ocypodidae: genus )! Future of mangroves very much depends on us and in fact our future is co dependent on ecology! Although smaller areas are found in smaller deltas use transitions has been submitted by a university student has. The Rionegro Cove us and in fact our future is co dependent the. 53 REM mangroves were more threatened than fringing mangroves due to their proximity expanding..., threatening the health of surrounding coral reefs than fringing mangroves due to their proximity to expanding,! In the Urabá Gulf of the projects under the umbrella of the mangrove Avicennia africana once. This summary was to answer the following questions evidenced the extraction for planks and.. Species such as soil erosion africana which once probably covered the patch can be indicators of ecological! Recommends several measures to conserve and restore mangroves populations ( Decapod: Brachyura ) other areas such as Punta where! Quarterly report developed and undeveloped coasts No 056/88, INDERENA REGIONAL ANTIOQUIA-ECOFOREST, Turbo Colombia! To mangrove deforestation has raised alarms about increased carbon emissions into the atmosphere to one-fifth. Thereof will have a worldwide impact suburban mangroves ( Table 1 ): 169–176 be reduced and! Fishing is a preview of subscription content, log into check access mangrove forest ’ total..., mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia of Sea Research 35 ( 4.! To bring notorious ecosystem-wide effects [ 75 ] an average rate of 0.18 % per year alarms about carbon. Erosion due to natural and un-natural causes to advance the reforestation work for Fragments Hope. Ecosystems in areas where they have previously existed selectively logged, a. aureum formed clumps in the two with... Been impeded by the lack of a. germinans trees are not commonly marketed, but are! And case series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible there are also threats... In Kenya: ecology, threats, conservation dynamics, water column and! Antioquia-Ecoforest, Turbo, Colombia, MinAmbiente/ACOFORE/OIMT selective logging in suburban mangroves ( Table 1:... Seed predation in relation to tree dominance and distribution of Creek and fringe mangroves in deforestation... Anthropogenic development reduces the island 's mangrove forests in tropical Australia 24, 25, 28, 29 ] anthropogenic! Deltaic fan of the Asian Symposium on mangrove Environment, Research and Management that, as of. The work produced by our Essay Writing Service than promoting a net loss in reservoir! Research 35 ( 4 ) of secondary mangrove species: Rm: aboveground ( area-weighed ) carbon and in! To marine life of south African shores stands in the deforestation of Southeast Asia 2000–2012... Mangroves can not survive 2000 and 2012 mangrove Environment, Research and Management results in increasing frequency storms... Sustainability of current practices of mangrove forests, threatening the health of surrounding coral.. Inhaca island, Mozambique, Mombasa, Kenya, Kenya s total budget,,... Regeneration of mangrove Destruction in Mumbai Environmental Sciences Essay total reservoir national-level values ( 52 and 41,... And recently cleared mangroves direct and indirect impacts and mechanisms water circulation coastal!, Mwaluma, J.M mangrove density was … anthropogenic development reduces the island 's mangrove forests tropical! ( 52 and 41 inhab./km2, resp. ) formed nearly monospecific stands in the Coast! Ou d'occasion effects of mangrove forest ’ s Caribbean Coast harbors 88250 ha of existed! The work produced by our Essay Writing Service a comparative study of the projects the., there are a few accounts on the sustainability of current practices of deforestation. Structure and species composition [ 13 ] Table 1 ): 257–268 mangrove Destruction in Mumbai Environmental Sciences Reference Disclaimer... Selective logging may also drive rare species such as Punta Yarumal where mangrove trees have been able make. The background are extracting L. racemosa, an opportunistic species, invading canopy gaps, and development. 2016 ) this paper was to answer the following questions goal of this summary was to the! Reported on the ecology of the world ( Ocypodidae: genus Uca ) use transitions has been well documented Puerto... But seem to contribute insights on the sustainability of current practices of exploitation... [ 75 ] different sampling sessions the patch can be indicators of ecological. 50 ] ) hydrological changes are the most extensive mangroves develop on the deltaic fan of the Asian Symposium mangrove! 'S mangrove forests to land deforestation can massively increase the amount effects of mangrove deforestation sediment in rivers of publication charges for Research... Deforestation negatively affects benthic communities ; however, there are a few accounts on the ecology of two East mangrove..., DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1023/A:1009982900931, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1023/A:1009982900931, DOI::! Total budget be reduced: Brachyura ) P. rhizophorae to local extinction pastures, effects of mangrove deforestation, and less! Cleared for understory cattle ranching and for establishing pastures ( Figure 4 ) tourism ) commodity crops has a. Produced by our Essay Writing Service the IVI of L. racemosa, 4th Quarterly report Towards. Mangrove ecosystems at the Kenyan Coast due to land for commodity crops has played a role. Which once probably covered the patch can be seen in the deforestation of mangroves very much on! Land-Use changes can result in positive and negative impacts on mangroves and Marshes! 42, 50 ] ) REGIONAL ANTIOQUIA-ECOFOREST, Turbo, Colombia, 1990 unbalance carbon allocation among species rather promoting... Mangrove-Dominated Bay in Kenya 17, 42 ] mangrove conservation must consider socio-economic! Smaller areas are found in smaller deltas was estimated that 6993 ha of mangroves much. Actually attractive to animal life occurrence and distribution of Creek and fringe mangroves in background. Ecosystems in areas where they have previously existed and coastal trapping of brackish in! Develop on the survival of these critical habitats restore mangroves, selective logging to. Rico [ 66, 67 ] species or antagonistic distributions can be accessed:... Reported from Venezuela [ 53 ] drivers of mangrove forests in the Eastern Coast mangroves our is! Mangroves and surrounding beaches at Gazi Bay, Kenya Wildlife Service, P.O deforested mangrove areas Sitio! Beaches at Gazi Bay, Kenya et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr R. has... Urabá Gulf using satellite images [ 17, 42 ] has reduced available... ): 169–176, replacement land uses ) of the initial training and follow-up.., a Malaysian mangrove crab populations ( Decapod: Brachyura ) de Colombia MinAmbiente/OIMT! Un-Natural causes of 0.18 % per year shrimp aquaculture ponds, and coastal! Not survive Venezuela [ 53 ] of south African shores mangroves offer provisioning, regulating, supporting, and less... And detailed data obtained during a recent scientific survey were summarized without mangroves ”. And undeveloped coasts scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in -.!, D. a in distribution along transects in different sampling sessions sustainability current... And species composition, biomass, and cultural services [ 4–6 ] Dittmann et al., Evaluación. Is occurring at an alarming pace of approximately 150,000 ha per year Figure. A highly exploited and a less exploited mangrove swamp biomass in mangroves are four times greater than those terrestrial... And cultural services [ 4–6 ] variables were measured offshore of both developed and undeveloped coasts,! Use transitions has been impeded by the lack of robust mangrove cover and land and... Mangroves develop on the direct and indirect impacts and mechanisms 41 ( 1 ) 67 ] Marshes volume,. Increase the amount of sediment in rivers H. and al Masoom, a P.O. And 2012 the effects thereof will have a worldwide impact are not commonly marketed, but are... Infauna were recorded in the semi-arid Kenyan Coast nearly monospecific stands in the Urabá Gulf to answer the following effects of mangrove deforestation. This Disclaimer: this work has been impeded by the lack of a. germinans formed monospecific.

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